BBC Horizon - Extreme Dinosaurs

BBC Horizon - Extreme Dinosaurs - The Science Of Giants
English | 640×352 | 700MB


Amazing new discoveries in South America are revolutionising what we thought we knew about the dinosaur world. It now seems that South America was home to both the largest meat-eater - so new it’s still without a name - and the largest herbivore - the enormous long-necked Argentinasaurus. And what’s more, these dinosaurs lived at the same time in the same place. So it’s possible that like in a science fiction movie, in this prehistoric world these two giants of their kind fought each other in a spectacular clash of the Titans.

Horizon follows the scientists to Argentina as they unearth one of these giants - a brand new species of dinosaur; the biggest carnivore ever discovered. Not yet named, this new creature is even bigger than T. rex, the so-called ‘king’ of the carnivores. The new giant South American predator had a skull bigger than a man that was full of serrated, knife-like teeth and long powerful jaw muscles. They could dissect their prey with almost surgical precision.

But even this formidable killing machine couldn’t alone have taken on the massive long-neck, Argentinasaurus, which was the height of a five-storey building. It must have hunted in a pack. The problem is, the mega-meat-eaters have always been assumed to have been solitary creatures. The evidence shows that they lived and hunted alone. If they weren’t pack hunters, then they would never have attacked Argentinasaurus. So it looked like the idea of a mighty battle between these two giants was simply science fiction. But extraordinary new clues are proving otherwise.

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I Can't Get Over You - The Queers

James Baxter

At sixteen, James Baxter was involved with animation, moving cutouts before a super-8mm camera. During his summer vacation, he heard that Who Framed Roger Rabbit was starting production in London. He submitted a videotape of his work, and was hired as an in-betweener. Upon moving to California, he was assigned to The Little Mermaid and he later worked on The Rescuers Down Under.

Supervising Animator:

Joanna (The Rescuers Down Under)
Belle (Beauty and the Beast)
Rafiki (The Lion King)
Quasimodo (The Hunchback of Notre Dame)
Tulio (The Road To El Dorado)
Spirit (Spirit)


Old Moses (The Prince of Egypt)

Assistant Animator:

Roger Rabbit, The Weasels (Who Framed Roger Rabbit)
Ariel, Triton (The Little Mermaid)

James Baxter Pencil Test

Eric lerner

Watch his awesome music video, hey don't forget to check his site Eric Lerner

Quentin Blake

Quentin Blake
Books | Exhibitions | International | Kids | Illustrators | Prints and much more
[Official Site]

Celia Calle

Michel Gagne


In the Fall of 2006, I was contacted by Brad Bird to create a series of animated vignettes for his movie Ratatouille. The concept was to design and animate abstract representations of what the character was tasting.

After discussing ideas and concepts with Brad Bird, I created a series of images to illustrate potential ideas of how the taste could be visualized in an abstract way. These were reviewed by Brad and shown to the music composer as inspiration

Conceptual Artwork | Remy's Visualization | Drawings | Compositing and Digital Enhancements | Final Compositing

Taste Visualization for Pixar's Ratatouille


During production, I came up with an idea to do the opening titles and setting them up in a microscopic world.

I pitched the idea to the directors and producer but was told that most likely the Farelly brothers' team would be handling that part of the movie. Undeterred, I decided to go ahead on my own time and produce the sequence without permission.

I storyboarded and created all the animation on paper. Then, I recruited Ryan Woodward to digitally composite the elements, add the camera moves and apply the various filters to produce the final look of the piece.

Needless to say, it didn't take long for the folks at Warners to warm up to my idea and the sequence was quickly integrated in the film. When you watch the clip, look closely at all the different organisms. Each one has a unique way to move, swim and walk about.

Osmosis Jones FX Animation & Designs


If you guys want anything.. Comment below, and we need your support to grow this link

This link is purely for Reference material, please don't reprint any of these contents..

thank you

Dilbert Comic Strips

Comic Strips | PDF | Scott Adams

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| 1993 | 1994 | 1995 (part1) | 1995 (part2) | 1996 (part1) | 1996 (part2) |

Guard Dog

Bill Plympton Studios | 5.31 minute | 2004 | English | 58 Mb

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How To Make Love To A Woman

Bill Plympton Studios | 5 minutes color | 1995 | English | 31 mb

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25 Ways To Quit Smoking

| Bill Plympton Studios | 5 minutes Color | 1989 | English | 24 Mb

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Focus Multimedia - Job Interview Skills

Focus Multimedia - Job Interview Skills

Training CD + Bonus Book | 479 MB | English | win RAR

Have you ever been in a job interview and been asked questions that have made your mind go blank? Questions like “what are your strengths?”, or even worse – “what are your weaknesses?”

“what are your strengths?”, or even worse – “what are your weaknesses?”

Whether you’re new to the job market, out of work or looking for a new challenge, Teaching-you Job Interview Skills

helps you gauge the best answers to even the toughestquestions that an interviewer can fire at you.

No two job interviews are the same and the key to success lies in thorough preparation and practice. Teaching-you Job

Interview Skills provides everything you need to make a good impression and supply the interviewer with the answers

they’re looking for.

Designed to eliminate stress and nerves, Teaching-you Job Interview Skills will boost your confidence and prepare you

for anything the interviewer decides to throw at you. With random interviewer selection and random question choice, the

interview practice is reflective of a real interview situation. Practice answering over 500 video interview questions, with the

added advantage of a useful hints section which explains the nature of the question and provides examples of what you

should - and shouldn’t - say. Teaching-you Job Interview Skills gives you the confidence and interview know-how to go

out there and secure the job of your dreams.

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Foundation ActionScript Animation: Making Things Move!

Foundation ActionScript Animation: Making Things Move!
PDF | 488 pages | 9 MB

Sure you can animate using motion tweens, in fact we'll help you do that with our Flash Cartoon Animation book, but isn't there something extra special in making things move with just a few lines of code?

In this book Keith Peters guides us through some basic animation theory and then demystifies the math and physics behind creating realistic animation, looking at trigonometry, velocity and acceleration, and bouncing & friction.

This book will teach you how to use Flash ActionScript to move the objects in your movies, rather than letting Flash's tween engine do it for you. The benefit of this is smaller, more realistic, more dynamic interactive movies that seem to come alive on your screen. Almost all of the code featured in this book will work fine in either Flash MX 2004 or Flash 8, and with a few minor adjustments, most of it can even be applied to Flash MX.

Although the text covers many advanced math and physics concepts, making for very realistic motion, there's no need to worry, even if you're a relative newcomer to programming and the last math class you took was in high school (and even if you barely remember that!).

This book first covers everything you need to know to get started: the principles of animation, and the basics of ActionScript, trigonometry, and Flash rendering methods. You'll work your way slowly from using code to move a single object across the screen to creating complex systems that really push Flash's capabilities with topics covered including collision detection, particle attraction, and kinematics. The book concludes with looking at 3D animation techniques, including building a basic 3D engine, 3D lines, fills and solids, and matrix math.

Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation

"Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation"
PDF | 350 pages | 8.3 MB

Whether you are an experienced Flash designer or developer looking for a guide to doing animation in Flash, or a novice to Flash who is looking for an effective way to create and distribute animations, this book will prove invaluable to you.

Covering every aspect of Flash animation, the book is a fast-paced yet thorough review of the Flash animation process. Written by the Emmy-Award winning team at ANIMAX, this book not only reveals the step-by-step process followed by one of today's leading Flash animation studios, it gives you valuable tips and tricks to take your Flash animation to the next level.

Divided into three phases of production (pre-production, animation, post-production) this book breaks the Flash animation process into smaller, more manageable steps. And because the authors approach the animation process from various perspectives (such as producer, animator, and editor) the book balances many of the real-world issues facing today's Flash animators, from artistic to technical to financial.

The book starts off by looking at planning and designing an animation project, including working out your goals, and putting together character libraries and storyboards. Next up we look at the production phase, which includes using plug-ins to make your work more efficient, implementing your animation, and adding special effects. Finally, we look at post-production work, including how After Effects can be used effectively alongside Flash for tasks such as camera mechanics, how to make Flash not look like Flash, and tips and tricks from the experts.

Whatever the reason, like millions of others around the world you've become interested in Flash animation. And you've come to the right place to learn more. This book is compatible with pretty much any fairly recent version of Flash.

  • Covers the full process of Flash animation, through preproduction, production, and post production
  • Covers many practical techniques, including creating character libraries, using plugins, and camera mechanics with After Effects.
  • Written by the Emmy award winning ANIMAX studios team

What you'll learn

  • How to effectively plan an animation project
  • How to put together storyboards
  • How to create elegant character libraries
  • How to set up your .fla file, ready for animation to commence
  • How to make more efficient use of your time with plugins, where to find good plugins, and how to create your own
  • How to animate, frame by frame, or using tweens
  • Why After Effects can be better than Flash for some tasks.
  • Effective After Effects Techniques, such as camera mechanics
  • How to make Flash not look like Flash

Summary of Contents

  • Chapter 1 - The Project Plan
  • Chapter 2 - Character Libraries
  • Chapter 3 - Storyboards and Animatics
  • Chapter 4 - Setting Up Your FLA
  • Chapter 5 - Plug-ins and Extensions
  • Chapter 6 - Frame by Frame Animation
  • Chapter 7 - Animating With Tweens
  • Chapter 8 - Animation Special Effects
  • Chapter 9 - Why Use After Effects?
  • Chapter 10 - After Effects and Camera Mechanics
  • Chapter 11 - Making Flash Not Look Like Flash
  • Chapter 12 - Tips and Tricks

9/11 Mysteries & Demolitions

9/11 Mysteries & Demolitions

Bombs were set on twin towers to destroy them, that is what this documentary says.

90 minutes of pure demolition evidence and analysis, laced with eye-opening witness testimonials. Moving from "the myth" through "the analysis" and into "the players," careful deconstruction of the official story set right alongside clean, clear science. The 9/11 picture is not one of politics or nationalism or loyalty, but one of strict and simple physics. How do you get a 10-second 110-story pancake collapse?

A movie that might actually reach our complacent mainstream. No agenda. No finger-pointing. Just the facts and the "mysteries." Look at that. Think about this. A story of people: Willie Rodriguez's strange recollection of noises on the 34th floor. Who was up there, bumping around? Scott Forbes' similar story, weeks before the towers fell. A story of blasting itself. Here's how shaped charges slice through steel beams to control the way they fall.

"Excellent. The best of the 9/11 movies." --David Ray Griffin, author of The New Pearl Harbor

"WOW! is my reaction to this movie. Great insight into demolitions and what really happened on 9/11/2001." --Steven E. Jones, physics professor, Brigham Young University

"An outstanding contribution to understanding 9/11. Simply superb." --James H. Fetzer, founder, Scholars for 911 Truth

"A superb work and asset to the patriot community and America itself." --Aaron Russo, producer/director, America: From Freedom to Fascism.

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Ice Age 3 - Scrat Collection + Bonus

Ice Age 3 : Dawn of the Dinosaurs

Scrat Collection + Bonus
AVI | 640x480 | 00:30:02 | 375 Mb


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The Adventures of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit

Walt Disney Treasures:

The Adventures of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit


| Trolley_Troubles - 1927 |
A cow, a widely varying track, a goat, and hills all pose problems for Oswald and the trolley full of young passengers that he conducts.

| Oh_Teacher - 1927 |
This short depicts Oswald's bicycle ride to school and his recess time plot to win over a female classmate by getting revenge on a rival.

| Great_Guns - 1927 |
After enlisting and kissing his lover goodbye, Oswald finds himself in the midst of trench warfare. There, he does battle with a defenseless little mouse and a disapproving big bear.

| The_Mechanical_Cow - 1927 |
Oswald wakes up a mechanical cow and the two work together to serve milk to young animals. The cow becomes a rescue means when Oswald's lady friend is abducted by monstrous trigger-happy gangsters.

| The_Ocean_Hop - 1927 |
Oswald competes in an airplane race against the unscrupulous Pegleg Pete, who's not above dirty (or sticky) tricks.

| All_Wet - 1927 |
After a day of selling most unusual hot dogs, Oswald bribes his way into a lifeguard position. Just then, his gal pal needs rescuing.

| Rival_Romeos - 1928 |
Oswald rushes to get to his feline love interest before another animal suitor (a bear?). While there, Oswald's efforts to serenade the cat are thwarted by a hungry goat.

| Bright_Lights - 1928 |
Lacking the 50 cents needed for admission, Oswald sneaks into a shimmy dance show, resulting in quite the wild mayhem to eject him from the theater.

| Ozzie_of_the_Mounted - 1928 |
As a member of the mounted police, Oswald tries to catch wanted criminal pegleg pete, taking chase on a mechanical horse.

| Oh_What_a_Knight - 1928 |
Oswald's efforts to woo a lady in a tower lead to him having to duel with her armored protective father for her hand.

| Sky_Scrappers__1928 |
On a day of construction work, Oswald buys a box lunch from his love interest and then must defend her honor by standing up to a much larger co-worker.

| The_Fox_Chase - 1928 |
Oswald has some troubles as one of many participants in a bumpy fox hunt.

| Tall_Timber - 1928 |
Misadventures abound as Oswald's day of outdoor activities like canoeing and hunting is intruded upon by a bird, a bear, and some boulders.

| Alice_Gets_Stung - 1925 |
This short eventually lives up to its title, but not until young human girl Alice gets caught up in animal antics including Julius the cat chasing a rabbit and bottom-swapping bears.

| Alice_in_the_Wooly_West - 1926 |
Alice is primarily a spectator as cats and bears play rodeo and cowboy bandits.

| Alice_s_Balloon_Race - 1926 |
Alice participates in a hot air balloon race, as does Julius the cat who has all sorts of wacky ideas, most involving other animals, to overcome various obstacles.

| Plane_Crazy - 1928 |
As pilot of a small newly-built airplane, Mickey Mouse runs into some takeoff trouble (and Clarabelle Cow, then called Carolyn). Good thing Minnie is there to help steer him right!

| Steamboat_Willie - 1928 |
You're not a serious fan of Disney animation if the iconic image of Mickey Mouse whistling and steering a boat isn't already burnt into your consciousness. The rest of this milestone short isn't as apt to turn up in company retrospectives: Mickey helps a tardy Minnie board the ship, has some run-ins with bully boss Pete, and uses a variety of objects and animals to play "Turkey in the Straw."

The Art of Monster Inc.

The Art of Monster Inc.
English | 144 pages | PDF | 220 MB

The Art of Car

The Art of Car

English | 160 pages | PDF | 320MB

Advent Children Reunion Character Files

Advent Children Reunion Character Files
English - Japanese | 122 pages | CBR | 70MB

Cloverfield Has a Monster Opening

Cloverfield Has a Monster Opening

Paramount's CLOVERFIELD (with vfx from Double Negative and Tippett Studio) devoured the box office competition for the first three days of the MLK holiday weekend (Jan. 20), boasting the best January opening ever with an estimated $40M. Meanwhile, Fox's 27 DRESSES debuted in second place with $22.7M. Last week's winner, THE BUCKET LIST, followed in third for Warner Bros. with $14M for a cume of $41.5M. Fox Searchlight's Oscar-contending JUNO settled for fourth with $9.9M and an impressive tally of $85M. Fifth place belonged to Screen Gems' FIRST SUNDAY with $7.8M and a cume of $28.4M. The sixth place finisher was NATIONAL TREASURE: BOOK OF SECRETS (with vfx from Asylum and Fusion CI Studios), which dug up another $7.609M for Buena Vista, raising its total to $197.4M. Overture's MAD MONEY debuted in seventh with $7.6M. Fox's ALVIN AND THE CHIPMUNKS (with vfx from Rhythm & Hues) slipped to eighth with $6.9M to bring its terrific tally to $196.2M. Warner Bros.' I AM LEGEND (with vfx from Sony Pictures Imageworks) staked the ninth spot with $4.8M for a lively cume of $247.4M. And holding 10th again was Golden Globe winner ATONEMENT from Focus Features with $4.7M for a cume of $31.8M.

On the animation front, Universal's VeggieTales movie, THE PIRATES WHO DON'T DO ANYTHING, managed only $2.8M in its second week for a tally of $7.7M, while Sony Pictures Classics' Oscar-contending PERSEPOLIS added $281,000, raising its total to $910,000. Box office information obtained from

Rocket Science Studios creates animated ad film for Force Motors

Rocket Science Studios creates animated ad film for Force Motors

Use of animation in advertising campaigns is growing trend today and the newest company to animate their advert is Force Motors.

Their new 20 second ad, sports 3D animation which is the result of a great deal of effort put in by Rocket Science Studios. The film was executed for Purav Sood an Independent Film Maker in collaboration with Triton Communication.

The ad has an architectural plot which beautifully displays the assembling of each part of the machine and finally presents the redesigned vehicle, so as to show the high-tech engineering used. This ad has been created to showcase Force Motors in a new light. The company has reinvented the design of their vehicle to be more contemporary and comfortable.

Throwing light on other important aspects, Evon Reddy, one of the founders of Rocket Science Studios said, “It took us two weeks, including conceptualization, for making the ad film. Each aspect of the execution was pre-calculated before assigning manpower and systems to the project, making it a procedural pipeline. I am happy that we were able to deliver creative and beautiful visual solutions to the complex shots and worked efficiently under very demanding circumstances.”

Akash Reddy, the Creative Director of the project headed a team of 20 professionals. When asked about the challenges faced, Akash Reddy told, “The concept envisioned called for a photorealistic rendering. The main challenge was modeling hundreds of pieces, then animating the broken pieces and having them blend-in seamlessly.”

Evon Reddy explained, “It was a challenging commercial as it needed spirited team work to complete it on-schedule, as per the visualization. Our primary focus was on communicating the revolutionary model of Force Motors with new age technology and design”. Considering the responses so far he added, “Our client audience expects us to maintain and better the standards. Each of our varied experiences has taught us to think strategically, understand the story structure & balance both the creative & business ends of the process.”

A highly enthusiastic Reddy concluded by saying, “It’s immensely satisfying to execute such challenging projects and move a step ahead.”

hemaroo's Ghatothkach at Cannes

Ghatothkach - Master of Magic, the 90-minute 2D animated film by Mumbai based Shemaroo Entertainment and Hyderabad based Sun Animatics, is all set to be screened at the Cannes Film Festival 2008.

"The film was previously promoted at the Cannes Film Festival 2007. After the phenomenal response that we got last year, the film is now being screened at Cannes to give international exposure," shared Smita Maroo, Head of Animation at Shemaroo.

"Through this, we hope to make people believe that good content can be produced in India. It is also for promoting the film and making people all over the world aware about the character," she added.

The film is directed by Singeetam Srinivasa Rao, who has more than 50 years of experience in the Indian and South Indian film industries. He has 60 films to his credits including films like Pushpak, Appuraja and Son of Aladdin, a 3D animated film which has been appreciated round the world.

Budgeted at Rs 150 million, the 100-minute long film is targeted at children in the age group of four to 10 years. The film is slated for a May 23 worldwide release and has been dubbed in seven different languages namely English, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Bengali with English subtitles for USA and Canada.

The film is the journey of a prince and his elephant friend - it is full of magic. When challenged by evil forces that are out to destroy him and to stop him from fulfilling his destiny, Ghattu and Gajju form an invincible team to fight them. Together they unite two soul-mates against all odds.

Ghatothkach, lovingly called Ghattu is the prince of the forest and is blessed with extra-ordinary powers. He has loads of fun with his magical powers, but also uses them to protect everyone around him. As a five year old, he rescues Gajju, a baby elephant which leads to a lifelong friendship.

Many big names from the Indian film industry have worked on it on different fronts. Lyrics for this movie are by Sameer and the songs have been sung by Shravan (Hanuman Fame), Shaan, Shreya Ghosal, Sunidhi Chauhan, Sudeesh Bhosle, Mahalaxmi Iyer and Daler Mehandi.

Owell Mina has worked as the Animation Director for the film. He has 20 years of experience in animation industry with world class series shows like Legend of Dragon and Little Amadeus to his credit.

The music is composed by Pravin Mani, associate of Indian Prodigy AR Rehman. 48 Camera Motion Capture Technology has been used for the film.

Ward Kimball On MySpace

Ward Kimball On MySpace

One of nine old men in Disney..

Skunk Fu - Official website

Animation August 2007

Animation August 2007
PDF | English | 7,7 MB

Animation October 2008

Animation October 2007
PDF | English | 6,8 MB

Animation April 2008

Animation April 2008
PDF | English | 3,8 MB

Animation December 2007

Animation December 2007
PDF |English | 7.35 MB

Animation January 2008

Animation January 2008
PDF |English | 11.3 MB

Animation February 2008

Animation February 2008
PDF |English | 7.3 MB

Animation March 2008

Animation March 2008
PDF |English | 5.4 MB

Animation May 2008

Animation May 2008
PDF | English | 7 MB

Better Software Magazine, May 2008

Better Software Magazine, May 2008
48 pages
16.6 Mb

The only magazine that provides insight and techniques to improve results throughout software development. Better Software is the magazine for software professionals who care about quality. Each issue brings you relevant, timely information to help you build better software. Continuing to deliver in-depth articles on testing, tools, defect tracking, metrics, and management, it's the only commercial magazine exclusively dedicated to software professionals.

Better Software is the magazine for software professionals who care about quality. Each issue brings you relevant, timely information to help you build better software. Continuing to deliver in-depth articles on testing, tools, defect tracking, metrics, and management, it's the only commercial magazine exclusively dedicated to software professionals.

Within the pages of each issue you'll find heavy hitting articles about solutions to common management problems, coverage on emerging technologies, and more. You'll benefit from expert analysis and real-world case studies in the areas of Testing & Analysis, Managing People & Teams, and Tools & Techniques.

Vaibhav Kumaresh - Vaibhav Studios

Endearing characters roll off his fingers

Vaibhav Kumaresh is playing God - in less than a week, he'll be breathing life into characters he is moulding for an ad shoot, for Cartoon Network. Like any other kid, Vaibhav doodled his way through school and only realised much later, that he could turn it into a profession thanks to a Visual Communication and Animation Design course at the National Institute of Design, NID, at Ahmedabad.

Today, Kumaresh has an impressive body of work. After Poga of MTV which won gold for the best animation at the Promax Asia Awards 2003, he went on to set up his own studio and more awards came his way. Since then, he's done the Amaron claymation commercials and created that lovable Sardar teacher, Simpu on Channel V.

Today, this gifted animator is busy with a new project, every month or so. He takes up only one project a month, so he can give it his complete attention. He confesses to being very happy doing all kinds of animation because it allows him to work with different mediums.

But he also feels that comparisons between the Indian animation industry with Europe or the US is unfair because abroad, "animation is much older. Audiences have been exposed to it for a much longer time. People have been making films, learning from their mistakes, basically the process (abroad) is atleast 18 years old. And, its been around 15 years since animation has picked up as a profession in India. So, I think there is still a long way to go before we are as experienced in the medium as the West."

But is the quality of the animation coming out of India today, matching up to international standards, or are we putting out slipshod stuff? He says, "We haven't applied ourselves enought to long format storytelling and we haven't done it sincerely or consistently enough. So, it works both ways, we need to put in better effort and the infrastructure has got to improve."

Keeping this in mind, what kind of work is being outsourced by Italian and French studios to India? He explains, "There are different structures of studios operating in India. Currently, the more lucrative kind is the type that is totally running on outsourced work."

After the awards and the recognition, he set up his own studio and he calls it the most happy moment in his life, well, possibly after his marriage though! He says, "It's definitely better, it's more independent. You are handling your own money and not someone else's money. In all aspects, creatively and financially, you get to work with the best people. Your planning projects that you really want to do and like to do."

The most important factor in any man's success is support from his family. His father pointed him in the right direction by telling him about the course at NID and even enrolling him in. Also, Kumaresh readily acknowledges his wife, Suranjana's role in giving him the space and the encouragement. She is also an NID alumni and she doubles up as partner and co-director in her husband's studio.

When they aren't working, the two attempt to cook a meal together, though Kumaresh might just find animation that much easier! Animated movies are something else he likes to unwind with, and his favourite is ofcourse, the adorable 'Lion King'. He says this movie has got all the ingredients - style, characters and storytelling - just perfect.

Manali Rohinesh

Source: Money Control

the 11 second club

Rigs for Character Animators

Animation Fields and Field Sizes

Animation Fields and Field Sizes

In 2D animation, centimetres and inches are used to specify distances and lengths, but there is another measurement system used unique to animation: fields.

A field is a measurement of area rather than length; think of a field as being the shape of a TV screen. A drawing that is 1 field in size will be a small rectangle that is one inch across and about .75 inches high. A 6 field drawing will be 6 inches across, and so on.

Let's start by looking at how the size and framing of animation drawings are specified. It is important that everyone working on an animated production knows this. There are standard ways of achieving this very easily.

To create 2D drawn animation, you use punched paper which sits on a pegbar for registration.

In the UK, “Acme” pegs are used – these are the familiar two slot shaped holes and one round hole as shown in the illustration below. In the examples to follow, the peg holes are at the bottom of the paper so are called "bottom pegged”.

Let us suppose that you are ready to animate. You have a pile of punched paper and a lightbox on which to work complete with a pegbar.

Each sheet of paper will look something like this:

Where is the actual drawing area? The animation paper is blank, so there is no initial clue as to where the edges of the drawing should be.

[For the time being, assume you are going to produce animation in the normal TV screen shape and not the letterbox (widescreen) shape.This will be dealt with later].

Below, the illustration indicates a normal drawing area together with some dimensions in inches.

There are three things you need in order to accurately describe the size and position of an animation drawing:

its shape
its size
the location of its centre

The shape of the example shown above is 4 x 3 which means it is 4 units across by 3 high. (4 x 3 = four by three).

Size: animation drawings are made to certain fixed field sizes, usually between 3 and 12 inches.
The size of the drawing above is 12 field (written as 12F) – this means it is 12 inches wide and roughly 8.85 inches high (roughly 4 x 3). A 6Fdrawing would be 6 inches across, and so on.

The actual size you make your drawings when you animate is a matter of personal choice. The 12F size is commonly used in the UK for TV production so is a sort of default size; you may feel more comfortable working at, say an 8F instead. There are also larger standard field sizes in animation, mostly used for cinema work where greater accuracy of drawing is needed. The largest commonly used field size is probably 16F, (mostly used in the USA). The shape, on the other hand is entirely dependent on the final means of transmission; if it's a piece of animation for the Internet, the shape is arbitary, but for television or cinema use, you must work to the shape of the screen that the animation will be seen on.

Its centre is located 5.75 inches immediately above the centre of the round peg hole.
In the illustration below, the cross marks the centre of the drawing area - and that is the same as the centre of the animation when it is seen by the viewer.
You can also think of the cross as representing the middle point of the viewfinder of the camera that will be used to film your animation. Nowadays, of course, a real camera may never be used to film the animation, but you will find that almost all professional animation programs will continue to use the term "camera" as it makes life a lot easier.

The cross is the centre of your drawing area and it is also the centre of the camera's viewfinder. It is therefore the centre of the final image as it will appear when it is broadcast or projected.

ALWAYS specify the centre of all artwork, preferably with a drawing, unless it is at the default centre as seen above; in this instance you can specify it by writing on the dopesheet that the size is :

This stands for "12 field centre", the crossed "C" signifying the Academy centre. (The crossed C can be used with any field size, not just 12, of course).

The easiest way to produce your work at a standard size (and of knowing where the centre is) is by getting your hands on an animation graticule (also called a field chart). Normally these show all the field sizes from 1F to 12F

A typical 12F Academy Field Chart:

Hopefully, the above should now be obvious as to its design and use. Field charts printed on acetate are available from animation supply companies.

There are also field charts available for larger field sizes. Unfortunately, if you are working in 4 x 3 shape, the centre cannot stay the same for larger field sizes as you would find that the pegbar would have to be placed within the artwork area. There are therefore different standard centres for larger field sizes.

An added complication nowadays is the need to produce animation for widescreen (also called "letterbox") shape. In fact, if you work on a 15F widescreen, you can keep to the standard 12F centre.

The simplest way to avoid all possible confusion is: draw a camera guide!

The basic widescreen shape is 16 x 9 and when you animate for that shape, you should act as though your field chart is the shape below:

I am not aware of these being available commercially; however, if you have a look at the notes on this site about designing for widescreen, it should be obvious how to deal with the matter. The real problem is in making sure that animation will work in 4 x 3 shape and 16 x 9 shape and sometimes also the compromise 14 x 9 shape and these notes will explain how to cope.

Note: whether you are working in 16 x 9 shape or 4 x 3, if the distance between the chart centre to the pegs is the standard distance 5.75 inches, you can use the crossed C to indicate it is centred; if you place the centre anywhere else, specify where the centre is with a drawing (a camera guide) and do not use the crossed C symbol

A basic camera guide should look something like this:

Sanjay Patel - Animator

Sanjay Patel is an animator and storyboard artist at Pixar Animation Studios. He spends a lot of time looking for taquerias that will serve him french fries along with his burritos. He was born in England and raised in L.S. but has never been to India.